Law Enforcement Information

Law enforcement are members of different agencies who are committed to upholding and enforcing the laws we live by. Some members work in local settings, while others work to enforce national laws. Often, the workers are a big component in punishing and convicting those who commit a crime. They work day-in and day-out to ensure that the streets are safe and the criminals are put behind bars.

There are generally two goals that law enforcement officials are seeking: prevention and enforcement. The first goal, prevention, can be particularly difficult. Officials must work extremely hard to prevent occurrences of crimes. For instance, police officers will regularly patrol an area in an attempt to keep crime from happening there. They make their presence known. In a way it is a message to criminals that lets them know they are being watched and criminal behavior will not be tolerated. The second goal, enforcement, can also be just as difficult. Officials have the unique assignment to punish people for committing a crime. They must assign a form of punishment that fits the crime. Not only that, but must also seek rehabilitation for the criminal whenever possible.

Today, law enforcement jobs can be found on all kinds of levels. For example, there are local police throughout the nation. They are there to protect the rights of citizens in specified jurisdictions. Then, there are states and federal law professionals. These professionals work to apprehend suspects after they find sufficient evidence of wrongdoing. The Federal Bureau of Investigation, for instance, is a federal agency. They have enforcement officials who work to enforce federal laws. Members of state and federal penal systems are also considered law enforcement officials. They manage different aspects of containment and punishment of criminals. Along with that, other law enforcement professionals include: probation officers, judges, and district attorneys.

Although law enforcement is a broad term, everyone working in it is working towards the same goal. They work to enforce laws, protect the people, and prevent crime. There are officials all over the world that are performing duties that range from trainee to advanced enforcement. Some might be investigators, while others are managers or directors. Despite their positions, they are still required to work within their jurisdictions, the rules of their job, and the law. Not only are citizens required to follow the law, but law enforcement officials must follow the rules too.

Spotting Reliable Divorce Help Online

The Internet has definitely taken the world by storm. It has opened up new ways for communicating with others all over the globe and has given everyone the convenience of having information ready at their fingertips. One downside to this though is that with the influx of the information also comes the rise of unreliable information. Divorce is one of the topics most frequently looked up on the net and to those who are in need of some reliable divorce help online, here are some good tips to remember:

When it comes to getting information and divorce help, nothing beats the quickness of the Internet. Quick as it may be, it certainly also has its flaws. For one, with the numerous sites online which have articles that talk about a range of topics on divorce, it is unsure that all the divorce information are truly 100% based on facts.

Many of these websites have articles which can be read free of charge which makes them all the more popular for those who are thinking of getting a divorce but are on a budget. Thus being able to tell which is fact and which is fallacy is definitely a much needed skill.

You should always have a critical mind so that you can tell which the facts are. It is never a wrong thing to ask around or look into details more closely rather than following and believing readily what is written. Compare and contrast articles and see which sounds more believable to you and contains the most facts rather than ideas based on opinions. And whenever you read something, watch something or listen to something, keep an open mind but never forget to use common sense. Sometimes when we are too emotionally charged we forget to use our logic. For example, you search for “ways to brutally get back on your cheating husband” instead of just looking for softer and more practical self-help stuff. That’s when you create a whole new problem in the middle of this sticky situation.

It will also be a good move to look into the main contributors of the site. Look up on their credentials and see if they have enough legal knowledge and experience to be deemed experts in the field. Look for sites which have a reputable divorce attorney as one of their main contributors, if not all.

Always remember that different states also vary in the laws that govern divorce, so if looking for divorce help online, search for ones that specialize on divorce laws within your state or area. You wouldn’t want to be taking tips from a site which have facts based on Nevada laws when you live in California.

Spotting reliable divorce help online is just all about reading and using your critical thinking skills. Most of the time, wrong information can easily be detected if we learn to read and look into details more closely.

Outsourcing Law Enforcement Transcription

As long as law enforcement agencies have been dealing with recorded audio and video, there’s been a need for law enforcement transcription. Despite advancements in technology, those pieces of audio and video that are entered into evidence or as part of an investigation still need to be transcribed for reasons of documentation and clarity.

The responsibility for transcription has commonly fallen on the shoulders of those professionals that require the work; law enforcement agencies, attorneys, public defenders, prosecutors, security companies, and others.

Unfortunately, over time the caseloads for law enforcement agencies have increased while there has been no increase (and sometimes a decrease) in personnel to manage the work and influx of forensic transcription.

Budget cuts have made it virtually impossible for many law enforcement agencies to bring on additional staff to assist with the translation and transcription, creating a nightmare of labor costs for many divisions.

Security Concerns

The possibility of outsourcing forensic transcription is one that is routinely discussed in many agencies, but many have reservations about utilizing outsourced services, particularly when delicate evidence in audio and video is concerned.

In the past many agencies were wary about sending out hardcopies of audio and video to be handled by a law enforcement transcription company when considering the potential of that content becoming “lost” or corrupted.

Likewise, the more hands an item passed through, the greater the chance of the material becoming damaged or leaked – especially to the media. These security concerns have encouraged a number of agencies to retain the transcription and translation work in house.

As technology has advanced however, new and far safer methods make it extremely simple to get the necessary content to a transcription service; Audio and video content can be uploaded to a secured server managed by the transcription service.

This secure upload makes it easy to monitor and maintain who has custody of the content because it passes easily from point A (the law enforcement agency that requires the transcription) to point B (the transcription service).

Reeling Budget Considerations

With the economical upset across the nation, many law enforcement agencies have suffered severe budget cuts that cost them both personnel and equipment. As such, it’s been extremely difficult for many of those agencies to justify paying an additional cost for outsourcing forensic transcription.

For many transcription services, it is common to charge by the line or by the page. Unfortunately it’s often very difficult to determine how many pages an interview will leave you with once it’s transcribed. There is another option that can make budgeting easier for law enforcement agencies, and that’s to opt for transcription services that charge by the minute.

That means if an agency needs transcription for a 46 minute interview – whether in audio or video format – then the agency is charged for 46 minutes.

The Real Benefit of Outsourcing Law Enforcement Transcription

The real problem facing law enforcement agencies, and any agency involved in the criminal justice system that is subject to strict budgets, is that in-house transcription takes up a tremendous amount of time and man power to complete.

Many agencies oppose outsourced transcription services because they fear the cost, as mentioned previously, but they don’t consider the actual cost of keeping that transcription in-house. Their intention is to save money by keeping transcription in-house but unfortunately that decision is costing some agencies a great deal of money.

*Salaries/Wages
Paid to those employees, secretaries, etc. who are required to transcribe the data – sometimes in the form of overtime depending on the case load.

*Management Expenses
Transcriptions typically need to be reviewed for accuracy and tracked to ensure that they are being completed in a timely manner. This can take time away from those in positions of authority within the department or agency.

*Cost of Information Technology
The cost of purchasing and maintaining software and hardware plus the training of employees and personnel to utilize the equipment for audio and video transcription

*Overflow and Delay Costs
There are inevitable times when delays occur which can pose significant problems to law enforcement cases where a deadline is concerned. Often the overflow and delayed material winds up in the hands of an outsourced company. Due to a looming deadline and thus a rapid turnaround requirement, the cost for such a service is often higher.

A Viable Alternative

Forensic and law enforcement transcription & translation outsourcing have become one of the primary ways that many agencies are finding budget relief. With skilled outsourcing to a service that employs trained forensic transcriptionists, law enforcement agencies gain a number of benefits:

*Reduced man hours of on-site personnel
*Elimination of the need to hire additional personnel to meet demands
*Improved quality of the transcribed content
*Reduced delays in transcription (rapid turnaround)

Outsourcing of forensic transcription means that far more agencies will be able to put their personnel where they belong – focusing on the agency’s primary responsibilities. With skilled outsourcing, law enforcement agencies, security companies, and so-on can trim costs because they are able to get transcripts completed on time, thus meeting the demand of an increased case load without the need to hire more staff or force current staff to burn the candle at both ends.

The new age of digital transcription via the web has given law enforcement agencies, public defenders offices, security companies, and others a means of maintaining the security of their data as it’s being passed off to trained forensic transcriptionists, and a rapid turnaround on those pressing cases that need to be handled quickly.

Prenuptial Agreements – The Before Marriage Divorce Contract

A prenuptial agreement, also called a “pre-nup”, or “premarital agreement”, is an agreement made by couples planning to get married. The pre-nup governs how issues such as dividing marital assets, and alimony will be dealt with if the marriage should end in a divorce.

Without a prenuptial or post-nuptial agreement, a divorced couple’s property will be divided and any maintenance awarded in accordance with Nevada statutes and case law. Any couple looking to save themselves from the circus called, divorce court, should seriously consider a pre-nup. Such an agreement is especially important if one or both parties are on their second or subsequent marriage, if they have children from a previous marriage, or have significant personal assets which they do not want to be subject to the whims of a family court judge.

Are Prenuptial Agreements Enforceable in Divorce Court?

Yes, unless there are defects in their negotiation or content. Originally, most states would not enforce prenuptial agreements because they felt such agreements were “in derogation of marriage”, meaning the agreements work against the principle of married for life. However, in the early seventies, following other states, Nevada held prenuptial agreements to be generally enforceable in, Buettner v. Buettner, 1973. So your agreement will be enforceable if it is properly done.

Why Draft a Prenup?

The most important reason to draft a pre-nup is to save you time and money, if your marriage ends in divorce. By agreeing to terms now, when you love each other, the divorce tends to run simpler, when the bliss has worn off. With a prenuptial agreement you know how things are going to be divided. Giving you peace of mind and costing you drastically less money in divorce attorney fees.

Pre-nups are not romantic. Approaching the conversation is a buzz kill. Most couples find it difficult to discuss the ending of a marriage. You’re in love, and going to be married forever. Why would you need a divorce agreement? Because like life, divorce happens. You have less of a chance of finding your home on fire, and yet you buy home insurance. Signing a pre-nup is not dooming your marriage. Many couples feel siging a pre-nup solidifies each other’s marriage commitments.

What’s in a Prenuptial Agreement?

In 1989, Nevada adopted the Uniform Premarital Agreements Act (UPAA), which can be found in the Nevada Revised Statutes at Title 123A. Under the UPAA, parties to a prenuptial agreement are allowed to agree with regard to:

1. Rights of property which the parties already have or might acquire during the marriage;
2. Any rights to buy, sell, lease or mortgage such property;
3. The disposition of property upon separation, divorce, or death of one of the parties;
4. Alimony; and
5. Any other rights and obligations of the parties which are allowed to be governed by private contract, i.e. are not governed by statute.

Separate property is the main focus of most prenuptial agreements. If you are coming into a marriage with real estate, retirement accounts, or cash, you might want to keep these assets separate from your community property. Community property is divided equally if a divorce happens. Separate property is not divided. A pre-nup often includes a waiver by both parties of any rights in property the other spouse acquired before the marriage. This is important if you who wish to preserve the assets they bring into a marriage.

Couples can also agree that property acquired by one partner after the marriage, which would ordinarily become community property, will remain the separate property of that spouse. For example, you might be halfway to earning a huge bonus, stock options, or maybe a future book deal. By agreeing these assets are to remain separate property you limit this argument in court.

A pre-nup may include language about limiting alimony (aka spousal support) in the case of a divorce. We are even seeing an increase in “fidelity clauses” being linked to spousal support. If a spouse has an affair the spousal support can be limited or increased, depending on your wishes. However, if the elimination or modification of alimony for a spouse results in that spouse needing public assistance, a court may disregard this portion of the agreement.

Two subjects of major concern to many couples contemplating marriage cannot be governed by prenuptial agreements: child custody and child support. By Nevada law, a court must decide these matters based on the standard of the best interests of the child and specific factors at the time of the decision. A premarital agreement signed before children are born would be unable to discuss the future factors. So, any private agreement between the parties on these subjects will not be binding.

When are Pre-Nups Not Enforced?

Prenuptial agreements are contracts between spouses. Like all contracts, in order to be binding, an agreement must be entered into by both parties knowingly and without any coercion, duress or fraud. Because of the closeness of the relationship between engaged persons, courts scrutinize prenuptial agreements especially closely.

First, the agreement must be entered into voluntarily. This means the agreement is not valid if one of the parties executed it under “duress,” a legal term meaning “pressure.” Agreements are often executed under some type of pressure; therefore, not every type of pressure will constitute duress.

While threats of physical violence or blackmail would clearly constitute duress, time between signing the agreement and the wedding date is the biggest culprit. Courts will void a pre-nup because the bride felt pressure to sign a pre-nup three days before the wedding. The typical cause being the emotional stress of having to cancel the wedding, and explain to hundreds of guests why the wedding was canceled. It’s not a gun to the head, but just as scary for some.

The threat of calling off the wedding is not always enough to be duress. Most courts reason that a party has a legal right to call off a wedding at any time. The courts look for other factors such as the unavailability of legal counsel for one spouse, or a one-sided agreement. For more examples of what constitutes duress, see “Voluntary Consent in Prenuptial Agreements”.

It is advisable for couples to allow plenty of time to negotiate and draft an agreement. To avoid the issue of duress being raised in the event of a divorce, couples should again allow several weeks, and even a month or so before the wedding date, for the process of negotiating and executing the agreement. Each side should also consult their own attorney.

Second, the agreement must be entered into “knowingly.” The UPAA requires that both parties be provided a “fair and reasonable disclosure” of the property and financial obligations of the other party. This means that income, real property, bank accounts, investments and all debts must be disclosed. This requirement underscores the advisability of allowing adequate time for consideration of the agreement.

The Nevada Supreme Court has held that where the husband failed to make the disclosures necessary to permit the wife to make an informed decision with respect to the premarital agreement, the agreement is invalid, Fick v. Fick, 1993. The court held that an incomplete list of the husband’s assets, given to the wife shortly before the wedding, and on the basis of which the wife signed the prenuptial agreement, did not constitute full disclosure.

Third, the agreement must be entered into without the presence of fraud. Fraud occurs when a party deliberately or negligently misleads the other party. Obviously, deliberately misstating or concealing one’s financial information would constitute fraud. However, as stated above prenuptial agreements are held to a higher degree of scrutiny than regular commercial contracts; courts require a high degree of honesty on the part of each party, called a fiduciary duty to the other party. Therefore, if the resulting agreement is excessively one-sided, courts will presume the existence of fraud, and, unless this presumption is rebutted in court, will invalidate the agreement.

In Sogg v. Nevada State Bank, the Nevada Supreme Court concluded that a premarital agreement would be presumed fraudulent where it left a wife with no resources or means of support in the event of a divorce, and where the wife probably would have received more under the community property laws of Nevada were it not for the premarital agreement.

The presumption may be overcome by a showing that the party claiming disadvantage was not in fact disadvantaged. Factors to consider include whether the disadvantaged party (1) had ample opportunity to obtain the advice of an independent attorney, (2) was not coerced into making a rash decision by circumstances, (3) had substantial business experience and acumen, and (4) was aware of the financial resources of the other party and understood the rights that were being forfeited.

The court in Sogg, held that where the premarital agreement was drafted by the husband’s attorney, the wife was never given an opportunity to obtain the assistance of her own counsel, was not given a copy of the agreement until the morning of the wedding, and the wife’s business experience was scanty. The court held that the presumption of fraud was not overcome, and the agreement was invalid.
Fair Pre-Nups

A contract is “unconscionable” if it is so one-sided as to be fundamentally unfair. In some states, a prenuptial agreement will be upheld even if it is one-sided and is a bad bargain for one of the parties, as long as it is made voluntarily and with full disclosure by each party. However, the Nevada Supreme Court doesn’t lean this way. In the Fick case, the court took into account the results of the agreement. It invalidated the agreement partly because the agreement eliminated alimony for the wife, which she would have been entitled to, and gave the wife much less community property than she would have received under community property laws. This indicates that Nevada courts will look at the substantive outcome of an agreement in determining fairness and validity.

It is apparent the reasons prenuptial agreements will be rendered unenforceable tend to overlap. In practice, facts which indicate there was not adequate disclosure by a party or which indicate the presence of duress may also be used to find fraud, unconscionably, etc. The overall lesson for couples is therefore: allow sufficient time for negotiation; have separate divorce lawyers available for both parties, disclose all assets, financial information and anything else the other party might reasonably want to know, and to attempt to treat the other spouse as fairly possible.

Divorce Attorneys – Important Questions to Ask at Your First Meeting

When preparing to meet with a Family Law Attorney in Reno, it helps to be prepared. Just like at a doctor’s appointment, it is sometimes difficult to remember all the things that you need to convey to the doctor or what advice they have given you. By taking a few moments in advance to prepare yourself for the appointment, you are likely to have a more meaningful meeting with your Divorce Attorney.

For starters, list out any questions or concerns you would like to discuss with your Divorce Lawyer. Bring this list to the appointment to insure that you cover all your questions or concerns. In most cases, you are paying for this time and will want to make the most of that time and avoid having to call your Divorce Attorney with a question later. There is no such thing as a bad question for your Divorce Lawyer, so don’t be afraid to ask. The more you know about Nevada Family Law and your case, the better you will understand what is happening during your Divorce or Child Custody Case.

Bring any documents, evidence or other information that is relevant to your case to the appointment. This is particularly important if you have been served with documents or your case has been ongoing prior to hiring the attorney. This will allow your Divorce Attorney to review the ongoing case and access what is happening and if any deadlines are looming.

Be honest during your appointment. An attorney needs all the facts to evaluate your case and help you prepare for the legal process. Surprises in court or during the case can be devastating so knowing about them and being prepared to address them avoids the “surprise” in Court and before the Judge.

You should keep notes during the appointment. This will allow you to review them later in the event you cannot recall what was discussed. The notes should be put in a safe place to avoid being viewed by an opposing party or other individuals.

Many clients want to bring family or friends to their appointments with them. I discourage doing this as it wipes away the attorney-client privilege if a third party is in the meeting. To fully protect your attorney-client privilege, it is best to have your family/friends wait in the waiting room during your meeting.

During the appointment, if you don’t understand a term used or something that is told to you, it is OK to ask! I want my clients to fully understand their case, the legal process and how my office functions. You will take away some of the emotion and stress that comes from litigation by simply making sure you understand. So if you don’t understand, please ask.

If you are setting a consult or an appointment with my office, I look forward to meeting you. I hope you take the time to read this entry and come as prepared as possible to our meeting so that I can provide the best service to you.

Law Enforcement Articles – The Need for Interview and Interrogation Training

At no time in our modern history have more demands been placed upon the law enforcement officer. Communities are extremely concerned about crime and they are demanding that law enforcement agencies “do something about it.”
It seems that every day, violent crime and drugs occupy the front page of every newspaper in America. Politicians at the local, state and national level like to give the impression of being “tough on crime” and espouse philosophies which, at least outwardly, seem to support that toughness.

At the same time, the public (via the media) is scrutinizing the actions of the law enforcement community more closely than ever before.

The public wants results and, more importantly, to feel safe. Yet, that same public will not tolerate any perceived abuses of suspects’ rights in the process.

Primarily due to the increased cost of incarceration, a concerted push is being made to release prisoners from jails and prisons, with the ensuing increase in probationers and parolees.

Probation/Parole Officers have increased caseloads with no end in sight.

Juvenile crime is sky-rocketing.

Younger, more fearless criminals are becoming the norm, with the media bringing sad tale after tale into our homes on a nightly basis.

When I speak to new recruits, I tell them that what the public wants in a police officer is simple: we want applicants that are warm, caring individuals who are capable of speaking to public groups; conducting demonstrations at schools; counseling troubled youth; rendering first aid; interacting with and assessing problems from a community perspective.

In addition to all of those admirable qualities, we want much more.

If a bad guy is trying to get into our home, we want an absolutely fearless gladiator who will willingly risk his/her very life to apprehend the suspect (without injury to the burglar, of course) and protect our property.

We want, expect and demand all of this for a salary that is far less than society pays a plumber!

Whether a person is a Probation/Parole Officer supervising 100 felons, a Police Officer in a patrol car, a Fish and Wildlife Officer working all alone 50 miles from any back-up, a military law enforcement officer or a Federal Agent working in a structured environment, being a law enforcement officer is an extraordinarily tough and complex job which demands that we apply all of our skills and training.

How has the law enforcement community dealt with the ever-increasingly need for interview training?

Poorly, I’m afraid. Here’s how it works…

In virtually every modern law enforcement agency, much care and consideration is given to the allocation of training, especially that training which requires both expenditures of time and money.

Traditionally, different segments of the agency (patrol, detectives, administration, etc.) have had to compete in a sense for their share of the almighty training dollar budget.

As a result, it is incumbent upon agency administrators to prioritize the available training money.

Training in most modern law enforcement agencies has taken on the semblance of a triage system at an emergency room. Administrators want to send everyone to training, so they end up throwing some money at those who are “bleeding” the most. Due to civil liability concerns, patrol officers mainly receive training emphasizing the motor skills areas (firearms, arrest techniques, emergency driving tactics, handgun retention skills, etc.), said areas presenting the most opportunity for misapplication and a resultant lawsuit.

Investigators receive training geared toward their primary areas of emphasis (interview & interrogation, crime scene investigation, investigative specialties, etc.).

Ironically, an objective analysis of the component parts of the job of patrol officer reveals interviewing skills are utilized far more often than any other skill. Think about it, what skill is used more often than the ability to talk with people and elicit information?

Conversely, what will get an officer in trouble with the public faster than an inability to communicate?

  • How many times in any officer’s life will he or she use deadly force?
  • How many times in any given month will he or she get into a vehicular pursuit?
  • How many instances of dealing with hazardous materials will crop up in an average month?

Contrast the frequency of these incidents against the absolute certainty that we will have to interact with people during each and every shift.

We routinely qualify in shooting, attend yearly hazardous materials safety courses, attend Emergency Vehicle Operations courses and the like, yet most patrol officers never attend formal interview and interrogation instruction after an initial exposure to it in the basic training academy.

Consider the following sober statistics:

o Police Training academies in the United States offer, on average, only 4 hours of training on interviewing techniques during Basic Training.

o 60% of law enforcement training academies in the U.S. don’t offer any interview training at all during Basic Training.

o Less than 20% of all law enforcement officers have received in-service training in interviewing techniques.

Unfortunately, in most law enforcement agencies, the investigators are repeatedly sent to interview and interrogation training, while the patrol officers who apply to attend are routinely turned down. In the bureaucratic effort to make training dollars stretch a long way, administrators often prioritize training requests, sometimes based upon outdated or inaccurate information.

The need exists for inexpensive, easy methods benefit police officers without regard to job assignment, all in an affordable manner.

Compounding the training problem is the current countrywide push toward “Community Policing” and all of the responsibilities inherent with that system. Simply put, Community Policing can be best described as a philosophy of empowerment that allows the beat officer to solve problems. By a collaborative effort with others in the community, police officers are responsible for actually resolving the community concerns, rather than just taking enforcement action.

While the philosophy sounds good, the average law enforcement patrol officer has not been given the tools with which to conduct investigations, interview people, make public presentations and achieve this collaboration to solve problems. Federal grant money has been spread across the country in an effort to promote Community Policing.

Officers have been hired, equipment has been purchased and public relations efforts have been extensive in this area. Unfortunately, officers that do not have the foundation of investigative training may find themselves in an uncomfortable position.

One Community Policing officer recently told me “If I had wanted to interview neighbors, show photo lineups, speak to public groups and work extensively with other public agencies, I would have been a detective. What happened to good, old-fashioned police work?”

One of the primary components of Community Policing is the ability to interact with people in a non-threatening manner which elicits maximum information.

Most basic training academies teach a block of instruction on “Interviewing and Interrogation.” However, these traditional systems stress the structured interview approach to interviewing. The new trainee soon realizes that he or she will conduct hundreds or thousands of street interviews while on patrol and will perform relatively few formal, structured interviews in an interrogation room setting.

There are some very fine formal “Interview and Interrogation” type training classes for law enforcement officers out there (being a polygraph examiner, I have attended quite a few of them), but they tend to emphasize the structured interrogation aspect of the situation and are geared more toward an investigator than a patrol officer.

Look for interview training that does not deal with just the structured interview/interrogation type setting. Again, an analysis of a patrol officer’s daily job reveals that the vast majority of contacts that he or she experiences are not in a structured setting conducive to a formalized method of interview and interrogation.

The Focused Interviewing system is not one based totally on theory, but rather upon practical application. These techniques are being successfully used daily, are very easy to learn and do not require reference texts to be carried in the field.

In this system, we will look at what is wrong (or at least ineffective) with typical street interview techniques, what led us to use techniques that don’t work, what does work and how to develop techniques that will dramatically increase our “confession” or “incriminating statement” rates in dealing with offenders and will be of great value in clarifying statements obtained from victims and witnesses.

Criminal Law Information

According to criminal law, crimes are offenses against the social order. In common law jurisdictions, there is a legal fiction that crimes disturb the peace of the sovereign. Government officials, as agents of the sovereign, are responsible for the prosecution of offenders. Hence, the criminal law “plaintiff” is the sovereign, which in practical terms translates into the monarch or the people.

The major objective of criminal law is deterrence and punishment, while that of civil law is individual compensation. Criminal offenses consist of two distinct elements; the physical act (the actus reus, guilty act) and the requisite mental state with which the act is done (the mens rea, guilty mind). For example, in murder the ‘actus reus is the unlawful killing of a person, while the ‘mens rea is malice aforethought (the intention to kill or cause grievous injury). The criminal law also details the defenses that defendants may bring to lessen or negate their liability (criminal responsibility) and specifies the punishment which may be inflicted. Criminal law neither requires a victim, nor a victim’s consent, to prosecute an offender. Furthermore, a criminal prosecution can occur over the objections of the victim and the consent of the victim is not a defense in most crimes.

Criminal law in most jurisdictions both in the common and civil law traditions is divided into two fields:

* Criminal procedure regulates the process for addressing violations of criminal law

* Substantive criminal law details the definition of, and punishments for, various crimes.

Criminal law distinguishes crimes from civil wrongs such as tort or breach of contract. Criminal law has been seen as a system of regulating the behavior of individuals and groups in relation to societal norms at large whereas civil law is aimed primarily at the relationship between private individuals and their rights and obligations under the law. Although many ancient legal systems did not clearly define a distinction between criminal and civil law, in England there was little difference until the codification of criminal law occurred in the late nineteenth century. In most U.S. law schools, the basic course in criminal law is based upon the English common criminal law of 1750 (with some minor American modifications like the clarification of mens rea in the Model Penal Code).

Types of criminal law are: Arrests and Searches, Drug Crimes, Juvenile Law, Drunk Driving / DUI / DWI , Parole, Probation, Pardons, Violent Crimes, White Collar Crimes and Military Law.

Dealing With Divorce

Everyone knows that Vegas is the place to be for any sort of celebration such as a bachelor or bachelor party or even just going out on the town for a weekend for fun. In some cases Vegas becomes a little hard to handle and some people can often lose what they originally came with. The next morning many things can be a surprise to you, including a new wedding band on your finger or a headache that is worse than ever. If you are waking up next to someone who you do not know and cannot remember and there is a signed document there you may need the assistance of a Las Vegas Divorce Attorney. A Las Vegas Divorce Lawyer can get both parties out of the issue without a very difficult trial of events.

There are many ways to ensure that big mistakes like these do not happen or are less likely to happen on your very fun trip planned for Las Vegas, Nevada. In Nevada there are many different rules than in some other states and sometimes it is important to make sure that you know what those are before you get there. Another good way to make sure that nothing goes too incredibly wrong is to go with a group of friends rather than alone. The chances are good that one person in your group will probably want to stay alert throughout the night making sure that everyone is okay. If you have that person you can guarantee that you will be a little safer.

A lot of people like to go to Vegas to let off steam and let loose and relax, but do not get too relaxed. Remember that your visit to Vegas is meant to be enjoyable. You should not feel like your mind has been erased when you are finally heading home. A good way to do this is to make sure that you are fully prepared for any sort of extra partying that you may not be ready for. Do not lose control of yourself because this can end in multiple bad decisions.]

Las Vegas is a city known for some crazy nights but you do not have to be a part of something that you do not want to. If you are not there to gamble and drink and party in the clubs, there are plenty of other things to do. There are several different relaxation resorts and spas as well as many shows and cool museums to look around in. If you are interested in shopping there is also a great social scene with lots of designer stores to get exactly what you want. The night scene may be a little too exciting for you, but that is totally okay.

Vegas changes a little from day to night and for some people Vegas is not all about gambling relentlessly and drinking until they pass out. If this is not for you, there are plenty of other fun things to do as well. The most important thing is to remember to have fun and enjoy.

Law Enforcement Degree – Why Going Online is Becoming SO Popular

Are you considering a law enforcement degree? Are you interested in becoming:

o Police officer
o Detective
o FBI Agent
o DEA Agent
o U.S. Marshal
o Department of Homeland security officer
o U.S. Secret Service agent

If any of these law enforcement careers seem interesting and sound like something you would like to pursue, consider a law enforcement degree as this will lead you one step closer to your perfect career.

Law Enforcement Degree Programs – What are they like?

As our world becomes more complex and technically advance, so is the demand on more highly trained individuals. As in any other career, law enforcement careers today require more and more education training from prospective applicants.

Most positions within this field require an associate’s degree, bachelor’s or even master’s degree, usually in criminal justice. Not only will a higher level of education, such as a bachelor, masters or doctorate degree, lead to greater salary but also to more job opportunities and career advancement choices.

Law enforcement degree programs will train you for a wide spectrum of skills, allowing for a wide range of career options. You will learn about the court and judicial system, police procedures and policies, prison systems, rehabilitation and control of prisoners.

Law Enforcement Courses/Curriculum

Aside from the study of law and the legal system, courses focus on accounting, business finance, computer science as well as physical education to promote fitness and performance on the job. Foreign language fluency is important for federal employment.

In a law enforcement training program you will be exposed to courses in criminal justice, police administration, police management, police organization, criminal law, criminal procedures, crime scene investigation, interviewing and interrogation, criminal counseling, juvenile delinquency, pubic safety – to name a few.

As you can see from the long list of courses offered, law enforcement is becoming a popular and fast growing field. As a result, colleges and universities offering training in this area are able to provide many courses to choose from. By exploring all your options within this degree program, you can pinpoint your strengths, areas of interest and design your ideal future career. You can do so much with a law enforcement degree – make sure you find out what works best for YOU.

Online Law Enforcement Degree Programs

Online education is on the raise so it’s not surprising that most online colleges and universities also offer law enforcement training. Online degree programs give you the freedom from attending regularly scheduled classes and allow you to go to school while working full time and managing a family. They are becoming very popular as they are a way to advance your career while keeping your current job. Many employers will pay their employees to go back to school, online.

There are so many online schools offering law enforcement online degree programs, how are you to choose one? The best approach is to select a few, request information and research, read about their programs and courses offered as well as class/degree requirements. Some schools offer complete online degree programs, others require some in class time. Find out all the details before signing on to a program, be it an online associate, bachelor or online master degree law enforcement program. When researching schools, in addition to program details, try to find out faculty qualifications as well as the percentage of students that graduate and find jobs upon graduation.

Law Enforcement Careers

The primary goal of all law enforcement professionals is to protect individuals within their jurisdiction. With this career you could work as a state or federal agent, police officers, inspector, sheriff or detective. There are many opportunities for specialization within this field and the list of job titles is extensive.

Police officers are usually employed at a local level and perform task such as traffic control, regular patrols, investigation of theft and assault as well as community policing.

Detectives and Investigators specialize in one area of crime and are assigned cases within that area. Their primary role is to collect evidence, conduct interviews, and examine records all leading to crime solution, arrest and prosecution.

Federal agents are employed by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and perform investigations of all types of crimes. The list of task and job opportunities is extensive. Spend some time reading and researching all the opportunities and educational requirements before choosing an area to specialize in within the law enforcement filed.

How Lawyers Can Market Themselves For Divorce Cases

Indianapolis is the fourteenth largest city in the United States. It has 829,718 residents according to the 2010 census. Over the past 10 years ending December 31, 2010 Indianapolis averaged 4705 new residents per year. Indianapolis reported 4844 divorce petitions filed in 2010, which represents an above average filing year and 2009 reported 5504, which was a significant increase over the average. It does not, however, rank among the top 50 divorce cities in the United States. The dubious distinction of being the divorce capital of the world belongs to Las Vegas, Nevada.

Many of the divorce petitions filed in Indianapolis are pro-se, which means that the person filing the petition is representing themselves. For the rest of the litigants who file or who are named as the respondent in these legal proceedings, they will be represented by a lawyer. Indianapolis Divorce Attorneys compete for the roughly 800 potential clients who file each month and they do so by print and electronic advertising. As the internet becomes a more popular venue for commerce, more and more lawyers and law firms are finding the internet to be a very dynamic venue in which to advertise their services. They employ a number of strategies to place themselves at the top of the heap, including paying major search engines for the right to be listed prominently at the top of the search pages. Since Google has the lion’s share of the internet market, this is the place where lawyers compete for position. At least those that know and understand the workings of the internet.

Despite this competition among divorce attorneys, and between all other attorneys for that matter, referrals from other clients and other lawyers remain the most common means of bringing new clients to the office. This may be due to the fact legal issues in general and divorce in particular tend to deal with highly personal and sensitive issues, and clients need to feel safe with the people who represent them. Finding lawyers that are known to their friends goes a long way to subdue any fears they might have about sharing their inner most thoughts with a complete stranger.

Many lawyers do not practice in this field, but virtually every full service law firm and even boutique law firms have at least one lawyer on staff who handle divorce and family law matters. There are very few attorneys who claim to practice exclusively in the family law arena, but there are a few. While this area of law is not highly technical or difficult, it does require a broad range of knowledge and it is not something a complete novice should tackle alone. There are simply too many pitfalls waiting for the inexperienced lawyer to stumble into as the case develops.

Las Vegas and Attorneys

Have you ever been to Las Vegas? What a town. Known as Sin City (I won’t imagine why, maybe gambling, prostitution, nude shows?) This is one town that has to put it’s police force to the task. The police force is one of the most effective agencies in the U.S. The judicial system is ranked as one of the best in the country. Also in this mix is its attorney services.

All the services in the Nevada area are geared for the people. Most of the time, as in other part’s of the country, the issues at hand are accidents, divorce, bankruptcy, criminal cases, corporate blue collar crimes.

Nevada offers much to all visitors and residents.

Gambling, tours, dining, golf, weddings, spas, attractions, nightlife. Before this town became the meca it developed into thanks to Bugsy Segal, a series of natural springs provided water to give the area residents ( Paiute tribes) and travelers refreshing water. The early Spanish exployers named this area Las Vegas meaning ‘the meadows’ or ‘the fertile valleys’. The Mormons (before it was Vegas, Vegas) settled for a spot.

There are many tours available not to miss when in Vegas. Check these out:

* The Grand Canyon
* The Hoover Dam
* The Vegas Strip itself
* The Red Rock & Valley of Fire Tour
* Lake Mead & the Colorado River Tours
* Area 51 Tour ( are you into aliens?)
* Death Valley Adventure Tour and much more.

Las Vegas will be celebrating it’s 105th birthday on May 15, 2010. Much to do. You can now connect with Las Vegas on Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube.

Keep in mind this letigous society, as in most towns, attorney’s in Las Vegas specialize their services. Of course you will find lawyers who will do a little of everything.

Services You May or May Not Need:

* Bankruptcy is high on the list no matter what city you live in, not just Las Vegas. Ask how many bankruptcy cases the attorney handles per year, in the last 5 years.There are a few different kinds of bankruptcy. Be sure you will be claiming the correct one.

* Divorce attorney’s are another specialty. You hear about all the weddings in Las Vegas, what about divorces. Be sure again that the attorney has much experience in marital law.

* Taxes. Need I say more. There are attorney’s that specialize in this area. They are Tax Attorney’s. There are a lot folks faced with the IRS and tax issues. Interview a few attorney’s who specialize in the field.

* Employment and Labor Law. Another issue that arises all over the country. Mega law suits from employees against their employers. A recent one is employees against Walmart. It could be a concern about getting paid for over-time or paid as A salaried employee. Check it out with an attorney who really specializes in this field.

*Be sure to check out the attorney and the services you need them for. Don’t be afraid to ask (repeatedly if necessary) anything you feel is important. No question is dumb or stupid. Las Vegas offers many attorney’s easy to access within your search.. Online, yellow pages, or referrals from a person you know.

*When in doubt about finding an attorney, go to the library. There is a book that lists who attorney’s themselves they would use if necessary. There you can also index or research Las Vegas public cases and what attorney was used.. Use all your resources and you will prevail. You need patience and diligence.

The Value of Law in Our Lives and Society

It is known by all that law is an essential part of a society. It helps to make a society trouble free and peaceful. Law is made by humans in order to change the society with the introduction of equality, justice, and fairness.

Man has made laws, so being a maker we must follow laws too. Government and courts have set these laws and they are applicable for every citizen of a country. Victims are protected by law, whereas criminals are punished by it. You must obey law to avoid its consequences.

Law is very important for a society, for not only maintaining peace but also to control systematic lives of the people. Law protects a society from anarchy, chaos and disorder. Criminal actions like trespassing, rape, steal, damage, bully, murder and terrorism are controlled by the Law. This saves the society from every criminal act.

Disasters can be caused if people live in a society and start doing things according to their wills and principles. The Law helps to prevent people from doing actions what they want. A mentality of taking revenge will be created among the masses which may turn into unlawful acts. A society will be full of illegal actions, crimes and murders, if there is no law. Rules help a society to consider even a small problem to avoid its bigger consequences in the future.

A simple waste disposal may kill many people, if not prevented now. Cleanliness will not be maintained by people, if there is no such rule. People will find their own ways of living and survival, if they are not bound by laws. A war zone can be created in the world. Laws not only maintain peace in the society but also help to run the human race without any disturbance and in proper order.

A good relationship with each other in a society is regulated by a system of laws. Conflicts are also settled down by the means of law. The respect for human rights is ensured by this procedure of rules and laws. A society can function efficiently and properly only because of the presence of laws. Crimes are being stopped to become an everyday happening with the help of laws, so that children do not grow up finding the crimes to be normal. Future generations of the human race are safe and protected because of strict orders and laws.

So, laws are not only important in the society, but also in human lives.

Cost Effective Law Enforcement Aerial Patrol

While many of our law enforcement officers will make a major stand in regards to flying helicopters and the versatility of the helicopter, for many law enforcement agencies there are far more cost effective options available to perform many of the same mission roles as a helicopter.

Starting with the helicopter it does offer vertical takeoff and decent as well as hover capability. Hover capability is vital for performing officer insertion or extraction in confined areas where landing is not normally practical. Hover capability is also critical for life rescue work.

We now enter into an area that may turn a few heads. How often and how needed are these capabilities for your particular organization? Larger cities or metropolitan areas may in fact need all of the capabilities of a helicopter and may have the need even for a large helicopter for proper tactical deployment of personnel and or equipment. Now if an analytical approach to bang for the buck is applied to a majority of law enforcement missions, the actual number of times per year that these capabilities were utilized are most likely very low. For many cities not willing or by the private service of EMS helicopter operators, or the services of the Coast Guard, many EMS missions are not even covered by law enforcement agencies.

Large cities and metro departments can even benefit from a slightly mixed fleet of affordable aircraft and more expensive helicopters. With smaller cheaper aircraft to perform normal patrols and surveillance with the more mission – enhanced aircraft providing the special mission services it can offer.

Many law enforcement agencies not only in the United States but also across the world have made some very significant purchases in regards to new helicopters in the past few years. Aircraft such as the Eurocopter B2 and B3’s as well as Bell 206 L4 and 407 helicopters. Agencies have been replacing older aircraft with high component and or high airframe times with newer aircraft with more performance and the ability to safely carry the many mission support tools needed for airborne law enforcement.

Agencies have been able to find ways to procure new aircraft but very often the maintenance and repair area after the initial purchase is overlooked. Right along with this oversight is the increased operational costs and possible increase in insurance costs associated with the new purchase. A typical scenario seen across the industry is when an aircraft enters a major inspection is that the money needed to repair or replace the inspection items is often not available or was not budgeted for in the maintenance operating budget. This can be an administrative short-sight, an agency with a fixed maintenance budget, inaccurate information on DOC’s (Direct Operating Costs) as the area in which you operate may have more atmospheric contaminates to cause corrosion that were not taken into account at the time of purchase. Another possibility can be the hours that were actually flown exceeded the planned hours for the budget, this brings those time life items to an earlier calendar time than previously planned.

Now where to get approval for the unplanned expenses or if planned and the actual costs are higher than estimated? Since the budgets are tight many agencies have had to keep aircraft grounded until such time that funds are allocated, and the aircraft components repaired to get the aircraft back in the air. Consequently, have had some aircraft become the dreaded hanger queen for months while awaiting funding. This not only makes the unit less efficient but also sets the stage for the same scenario for the following year as other aircraft now bear the burden of additional flight hours from the previously mentioned grounded ship now carrying its fair share of the flight hour program.

The unit supervisor may be suddenly faced with some rather humbling data to provide the supervising police staff or civilian officials in regards to budget.

Operationally, there are some options available, be it for a small town or the large law enforcement unit. A quick look at actual mission roles and calls will normally reveal that calls responded to only required an aircraft to have slow circular flight capability and that hover capability was in fact not needed. A check with your pilots will also reveal a safety reason for doing orbits rather than hover. Hovering burns more fuel, the pilot is also in a vulnerable position in regards to performance (high torque, high EGT, or other operational parameters), and it is also a very vulnerable position if the engine or some other component decides to fail at this critical time.

For helicopters to effectively enter into an autorotative state there has to be enough potential energy available to become a successful maneuver. The pilot requires two things to perform this critical skill, altitude and or forward speed. Forward speed and altitude are the sources of our potential energy which induce the rotational forces needed to safely perform autorotation. Since most police work is performed at low altitude the safe pilot will keep the aircraft moving forward in the event that an autorotation should have to be performed.

A gyroplane is in a constant state of autorotation and in the event to make an emergency landing, the pilot simply maintains airspeed to sustain autorotation and perform the landing approach to touchdown.

Options that make a lot of sense from a budget point of view are, helicopters that can be operated for patrol use at a far cheaper rate than our mission specialized aircraft. This does not necessarily mean the aircraft is not capable of many of the same missions. Since the growth of the UAV market, many systems used for these aircraft are the same systems required for law enforcement use. These systems have become quite lightweight and compact in size. Another option is to use another aircraft that is still a rotorcraft but can operate far more efficiently than the helicopter in many of the same mission roles- the gyroplane. I would like to direct your attention to what Ken Wallis has performed in both testing and actual missions roles with his gyroplanes. Pilots may frown on this move but they are your pilots and expected to fly as your pilots. Naturally training will be required but their job is to fly. The same holds true for the mechanics that may raise a fit about working on a small gyroplane. It is the ability to perform the mission that is their responsibility and management’s responsibility to the community to provide effective law enforcement capability but it shouldn’t come at too great of a burden to the taxpayer.

With these thoughts in mind as well as privatized law enforcement roles for gyroplanes Groen Brothers has recently released their newest gyroplane model. The Sparrowhawk III is designed for the use in homeland security roles, private law enforcement / security as well a normal law enforcement roles. The affectivity of light gyroplanes was been validated time and again from Ken Wallis and his use of specialized equipment to perform cadaver searches to port surveys for Saudi Arabia. Not too long ago the German government entered into testing of gyroplanes in a law enforcement role but not much feedback to the rest of the law enforcement community has surfaced from these tests.

If there is any indication of the value of the operational advantages of the gyroplane as simple look at the Sikorsky demonstrator and test vehicle X-2, a coaxial hybrid with a large pusher propeller located at the tail. For pilots and mechanic that simply are not informed of the aircraft type resistance to change can be accepted. Once they understand that the probable future of law enforcement aviation is most likely going to be an aircraft of similar design as the X-2, then the benefits of gyroplane technology will come to be appreciated.

Sticker shock of continuing maintenance costs after the initial purchase of a helicopter has left many agencies and local governments shaking their heads at the high costs they most likely never thought they would encounter. There are economical options; helicopters operations in most agencies began with small simple reciprocating powered helicopters. The purchase of former military helicopters showed the potential of turbine powered law enforcement helicopters but the added budgetary costs of newer aircraft and the tightening of local government purse strings has even lead to the loss of some law enforcement airborne units all-together. I am sure that any of those pilots would rather be flying and performing their law enforcement role than to be grounded or without a job. The modern gyroplane is no tinker toy and for any that approach the aircraft with as much of an attitude they will quickly get themselves into trouble. Like any other aircraft it does have operational parameters for safe flight and only flies like a gyroplane, not like an airplane and not like a helicopter, it is its’ own unique form of aerial transportation.

The gyroplane also provides as good of an observation platform as any helicopter and much of the associated vibrations found with helicopters is not as pronounced in gyroplanes putting less vibration on fragile equipment such as radios and navigation equipment. This means lighter equipment can replace bulkier equipment.

In regards to the dreaded airworthiness directives that can quickly down a fleet of helicopters the combined use of gyroplanes can still keep a unit effective and performing law enforcement aerial duties at a fraction of the cost. Inclusive to gyroplane maintenance costs is they typically have far fewer time life components to replace, inspect or overhaul further reducing the operational dollars needed to support the unit’s mission. Fuel being of concern of late can also be brought under a manageable budget with many aircraft using premium auto fuel in place of expensive Avgas or jet fuel.

So before a unit decides it can no longer provide the needed support to ground officers or provide valuable service to the community by closing the hanger doors. The unit may want to explore the possibilities of using a platform that quite simply provides more bang for the buck than the helicopter to perform many of the same missions.

What Interfaith Law Enforcement Chaplains Have In Common With Law Enforcement Officers

Learning to understand the Law Enforcement culture and the unique pressures that officers experience day-to-day is an important part of being an Interfaith Law Enforcement Chaplain. At first it may seem that the culture of Law Enforcement and that of Faith Communities have very little in common. However, members of the clergy may have more in common with Law Enforcement Officers than what is immediately obvious. These similarities provide the foundation upon which to build a relationship of understanding and trust.

“On” All The Time

Members of the clergy understand something of what it means to be on duty all the time. They could be out shopping in the produce section of a supermarket and find themselves unexpectedly drawn into a conversation with someone from their community about an important life issue. Members of the clergy can’t disengage with “I’m not on duty right now,” for doing so would likely go against their nature and possibly cause irreparable damage to their relationships in the community. Law enforcement officers have a similar “on” all the time experience of life and can’t easily step out of the problem solving role that members of the public may project on them. Family, friends and neighbors may also have difficulties in seeing an officer outside of his or her role. Being “on” all the time is a source of stress because it does not allow for the individual, outside of a professional role, to be experienced. When a chaplain understands this, it can help the chaplain be present for an officer without contributing to the demands already being placed on the officer. Being “On” all the time as a Law Enforcement Officer has an additional stress, that of sustained alertness for potential danger. Not being aware of this can cause a Chaplain to misinterpret the normal hyper alert behavior of an officer as being distant or unapproachable.

Tips

  • Don’t assume too casual or overly friendly demeanor when communicating with Law Enforcement Officers. Let officers set the tone and thereby let you know what is appropriate for your interactions.
  • Do be courteous, kind and professional.

Set Apart

Some clergy wear vestments that set them apart from the public and even those who do not wear any particular identifying clothing or symbol of their office can experience being set apart from society. This can be in the form of expectations that the public have of clergy: to have faultless personal lives and spotless behavior all the time, and to never deviate from an inhumane standard of perfection. Similarly, Law Enforcement Officers are seemingly under sustained scrutiny. Their badges, uniforms and weapons, make them stand out from a crowd that expects perfect politeness and faultless behavior. Sometimes the individual behind the uniform is lost in all the expectation. The pressure to show up perfectly can have the effect of dehumanizing a person and cause an ever-deepening rift between their on duty personality and who they really are. When a chaplain understands this about an officer, it can help the chaplain to be present for the person behind the uniform with patience, letting the officer lead with instructions, conversation and requests-and above all to have a strong capacity to listen to the officer with as little judgment as possible.

Tips

  • Avoid expressing personal opinions about matters of social conduct.
  • Do listen, frequently and carefully

Professional, Not Personal

Regardless of an officer’s opinion about local laws, private faith, political parties, or personal preferences regarding social trends, he or she has to apply the law with sustained professionalism toward everyone. Officers interact with people from every walk of life and way of thinking and believing and have to be able to function with fairness and equanimity in this diverse environment. An Interfaith Law Enforcement Chaplain will no doubt have strong personal faith conviction and a deep spiritual practice. Regardless of the chaplain’s private faith, he or she will be serving officers and members of the public from every-and no-faith tradition; at no time is it appropriate to proselytize. An Interfaith Law Enforcement Chaplain has to apply compassion and service with sustained professionalism toward everyone.

Tips

  • Don’t bring anything to the conversation that was not requested. Testimonies of faith, no matter what the tradition, must not be brought into the conversation with officers unless specifically requested.
  • Do be respectful of what officers want to talk about and follow their lead. Include in this the ability to respect an officer’s wish to talk about anything.

Divorce and Temporary Protection Order (TPO's)

A court has the power to issue a TPO (temporary protection order) to protect individuals from being harassed and stalked. In a divorce proceeding, the court may also grant a TPO to a spouse, husband or wife, if the spouse has been subject to instances of domestic violence.

Domestic violence is not simply defined by physical violence towards a spouse or child. It takes many different forms. In Nevada, the law provides that a court may issue a TPO on a current or former spouse if it finds evidence of:

Sexual violence
Child abuse
Harassment
Physical violence
Threats of physical violence
Coercion

There are several TPO’s that a court may issue. First, you can apply for an emergency protection order. This application must be made while your spouse is still in police custody after being arrested for a domestic violence incident and is effective for 7 days. A temporary protection order may also be requested regardless of whether there is an arrest and is effective for 30 days. Finally, you can apply for an extended protection order, which can last for up to one year. If you apply for an extended order, a hearing will be scheduled. Your spouse must be notified and has the right to attend the hearing. It is also absolutely necessary that you attend the hearing or the TPO will be dismissed.

A judge can rule on a number of issues when granting a TPO. Your spouse can be ordered to stay away from your home, place of work, or your child’s school or daycare, or any other relevant place. Your spouse can also be ordered not to contact you in the form of phone calls, through a third party such as friends or family, and email. Your spouse can be prevented from destroying your property, assaulting you or your children, and harassing you in any way. The judge may also order your spouse to leave the marital home, assign control of bank accounts and other items that you share, as well as temporary child custody.

Every situation is different and if you are unsure of whether you are entitled to a TPO you can contact the Family Violence Intervention Program located in the Clark County Family Court. Applications are free and advocates are there to assist you. They cannot provide legal advice, but they can help you with the application process.

A temporary protection order is designed to protect individuals from domestic violence before, during, and after a divorce and these matters are taken very seriously. The court will not tolerate false or exaggerated accusations of domestic violence in order to gain some sort of advantage in a divorce or custody battle. If you are in need of a TPO, or you have had a TPO wrongfully issued against you, it may be in your best interest to consult a Las Vegas divorce attorney experienced in these legal matters to protect you rights.

Important Facts About the Criminal Law

Criminal law can be generally defined as the branch of law that majorly classifies crimes, treats of their nature, and provides best effective ways or approaches that can be followed for their punishment. In recent times, it has emerged as one of the few fields that are attracting many young aspirants to make their career. In fact, in the last few years the ratio of students practicing criminal law has increased rapidly. These days, many young lawyers are engaged in criminal law practice work for a governmental agency on either the federal or local level or in the non-indigent defense work for solo or small private practices. Today it is counted among one of the major vital parts of the legal system in the United States and offer rewards that are very exciting and better than any other profession. However, the field of criminal law even features some of the most important facts that are worth to be known.

Today if we talk about the criminal law then it is very important to understand the exact meaning or the classification of crimes. In simple terms, crimes can be classified as felony or misdemeanor, but there is a slight difference between felony and misdemeanor. The basic distinction between felonies and misdemeanors rests on the penalty and the power of imprisonment. Basically, a misdemeanor is defined as an offense for which a punishment other than detention or death in the state prison is followed by the law. Besides this, there are many people who often get confused with the term “degree of crime”. Now, the term degree of crime primarily relates to distinctions in the guiltiness of a crime because of the circumstances surrounding its commission.

In the United States, the power to define crimes and set penalty generally depends on the legislatures of the United States, the states, and the territories along with the principal authority associated to that of the individual states. In addition, a common-law crime is one punishable universal regulation, as distinguished from crimes specified by statute. However, these days in many U.S. jurisdictions, including those in which inclusive criminal law has been enacted the common law in relative to the criminal process.

The procedure in criminal cases is significantly similar all through the United States. If the offense is severe, the case is initially passed to a grand jury, which draws up condemnation if there is enough proof to validate the trial, or else it discharges the charged convict. However, it is really surprising to find that in the United States, the offenders proved as guilty in the criminal offense may be liable to get life long imprisonment, which can go up to 100 years. Moreover, the electric chair punishments and other severe criminal punishments have been amended in US, many years back.

If we talk about the criminal laws in gulf countries then the picture is totally different. The laws are very strict with regard to the execution of punishments. In gulf countries, the criminal laws are majorly governed by the Islamic code of conduct or ‘Shariat’ and there is no subject of any kind of amendments. In the United Kingdom, criminal acts are majorly considered as crime against the entire community. And, moreover, the state in addition to different international organizations plays a major role for crime prevention and deal with convicted offenders. The criminal laws vary across the world, but the basic of most of these laws is based on one prime rule to punish the culprit.

Nevertheless, today if we talk in terms of career options in the field of criminal law then there are numerous opportunities. Many students are working on a volunteer basis and gaining experience with externships. The field is very broad one with various options available in almost every sector of industry, both private and public.

Divorce FAQs

Divorce can be defined as a method of terminating a marriage. Legally speaking, divorce gives both individuals the right to remarry, determines the custody and care of children and divides the couple’s property. However, the prerequisites of filing a petition for divorce vary from state to state. Some states demand a residency requirement while others do not.

What are contested and uncontested divorces?

An uncontested divorce is one where the couple decides the terms of divorce and their disagreements are mainly settled outside the court. Uncontested divorces are often less expensive and can be performed without any attorney. Uncontested divorces move faster through the court system. In contested divorces, attorneys handle the case, as it involves major issues, complex legal procedures and heavy financial stakes.

How is property divided in a divorce?

In United States, each state has its own law to determine the division of property. Division of property is done based on two different systems, community property and equitable distribution. Community property is property owned equally by the couple and is divided equally at divorce. States that follow the community property system are California, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, Washington, Arizona, Idaho, Wisconsin and Texas. States that follow equitable distribution system consider assets as marital property and each spouse is awarded a percentage of the total value of the assets.

Who will have custody of the children?

In accordance with the best interests of the child, the court shall determine the assignation of parental responsibilities, including parenting time and decision-making responsibilities. This is done giving considerable thought to the physical, emotional and mental requirements of the child.

What is alimony and how much child and spousal support should be paid?

Alimony can be defined as court-ordered support paid by one spouse to another after they are separated. In United States, alimony is often referred to as maintenance or spousal support. In Colorado it is called “maintenance.” However, each state has different laws and this determines the amount and period of alimony. Any alimony order for a wife will come to an end when she remarries. The federal law mandates parents to support their children. Child support laws throughout the United States attempt to ensure the child?s economic support so that its standard of living is preserved.

The Basic Details About Law Enforcement Careers

The law enforcement is a wide field of career options, the Bureau of Statistics of the United States estimates that the field will keep on growing steadily until the year of 2018, and it will increase by 10% for law enforcement professionals. The usual career that requires 4-year degree course in the law enforcement is the Police Department as well as the Security Enforcement Agencies.

Investigators and detectives – they are acting for the review evidences, interview the witnesses and follow the leads for solving the crimes committed within their jurisdiction. In spite of the glamorous reputation, being a detective is not that easy. Hours of work are long, the nature of job is dangerous and the salary is usually low. Detective ranking is achieved through climbing the steps like the police forces.

Parole officers – they are the type of law enforcers who are working with the parolees report as they are being conditionally released from the prison. They have the backgrounds in administration or law enforcement and they should be knowledgeable with the basic-moderate of their computer skills. They have to be ready to testify against or favor to their parolees in the court proceeding if needed.

FBI and CIA – they are 2 of the best enforcement arms of the United States Government. Career seekers that obtain the security clearance can find stable employment within the government, and they can be at the secret service or even military police.

Prosecutor and Defense Attorneys – they can enter the field after they have completed the 3-year graduate level of the law schooling programs. As the degree of law enforcement is not being required for the law schools admission, they can still provide a competitive edge that are needed for earning an acceptance to any law school.

These potential experts must pass the background investigation that includes inquiries to their working history, financial history and criminal history. For those individuals who want to pursue their law enforcement degree must be prepared for the participation of several interviews with their choice of agency. They need to practice for answering the interview questions that are difficult.

This is a rewarding field that has many advantages for the ones who are choosing it as their career. Landscape of this career is augmenting everyday as the advancement of good opportunities are many.

Child Curfew Laws

Curfew laws restrict the right of youngsters (usually under 18) to be outdoors, in the streets or public places during certain hours of the day. Children are required to be at home or an authorized place between a set hour in the evening until a designated time the following morning. Most often youth curfew laws allow for minors to be in public places for an extended time on Friday and Saturday nights. There are certain communities that relax curfew laws in the summer months when schools are closed for break. Others take a different approach and impose more severe time restrictions when children are on vacation or break.

The implementation of laws governing child curfews in the United States of America is a matter of what is known as the police power of the individual states. The federal government does not have the constitutional authority to enforce any kind of national curfew, and this includes child curfew, except in the event of a national emergency. Juvenile curfews have been imposed by state, country, city and township authorities.

Local laws dictate that parents are responsible for the administration and transportation costs of returning a minor to his or her home on a second curfew violation. A child who is a frequent offender of the curfew may be declared a ward of the court and be treated as a status offender. Most curfew laws prohibit minors from being out past 10 p.m. on weekdays and midnight on weekends. There are certain exceptions to the law, however, which allow kids to legally stay out late if they are:

· Running an errand for a parent or guardian

· Participating in a religious, educational or political activity

· Accompanied by a parent, guardian or another adult

· Working or going to or returning from their place of employment

· Returning home from a school, cultural or recreational activity

· Responding to some emergency

What happens when the curfew is broken?

When a child breaks the curfew, he or she could be temporarily detained by the police and then returned home. The State Law also gives the local police officers some flexibility in their enforcement of such curfew laws – if the officer believes the youth has a “legitimate reason based on extenuating circumstances” for the breach. Some of the other penalties for breaking the curfew are:

· Fines (gradually increases for subsequent violations)

· Restrictions of driver’s license privileges

· Possible detention in jail or juvenile hall

· Imposition of community service or compulsory enrollment in after-school programs

Crime against the youth

The primary concern of every parent and the community is obviously keeping children safe and protected. The main objective of implementing juvenile or child curfew is to safeguard the well-being and welfare of children. With the steady rise of crime rates against the youth, the underlying rationale of community members is that children are much safer when they are at home and not outside after a certain time in the evening.

Delinquency by the youth

The second objective is to protect the community as a whole from the miscreant conduct of certain children who are inclined to break the law. Crimes committed by the youth are a major problem in all big cities today. Restricting the presence of unsupervised children from public venues after a curfew each night will reduce the number of children and teens that end up involved in criminal activity and break the law.

Gang violence control

Law enforcement officers maintain that juvenile curfew laws provide them with another weapon in their battle against gang violence. It can be hard to gather substantial evidence to arrest members of a gang, but a violation of curfew law will at least provide officers a chance to interrupt their presence on the streets of a community.

Since child curfew laws vary by locality and government enforcement, it can depend on a number of factors. If you would like to know more about the curfew laws in your community, you could get in touch with your local police department. If your community does not have a curfew, be sure to obtain a list of the laws and a list of the exceptions and exceptional circumstances. Please feel free to express your views on the subject by dropping us a comment below.

Understanding Federal Crimes

In the realm of law, crimes are considered to be within a jurisdiction. This means that the trials for certain crimes are the responsibility of certain areas of the country. At the most basic division, jurisdiction is broken into two levels: state level and federal level.

States usually have jurisdiction over most crimes that occur within that state. This may include murder, theft, trespassing, and other actions that break federal and state criminal laws. Some crimes are under both federal and state jurisdiction, meaning that the trials can be heard in state or federal courts.

Some particular crimes are considered federal offenses even though they occur in certain states. These crimes are considered crimes against the federal government and may include espionage, conspiracy against the government, illegal alien smuggling, and other crimes that threaten the federal government.

Other cases that may share joint jurisdiction as previously mentioned may become exclusively federal crimes depending on the magnitude of the crime. Examples of this include major cases of embezzling, bank fraud, and drug-related crimes.

In many cases, federal crimes are considered more severe than state crimes because they put more people in danger or affect a greater number of individuals. When an individual is convicted of a federal crime, he or she may serve time in a federal prison as opposed to a state jail.

Federal crimes often carry severe punishments, and individuals who commit them often see decades or even life in prison. These sentences may be in addition to severe fines that an individual is ordered to pay.

Understanding Best Payday Loans to Make Them a Rule Rather than an Exception

Any loan resulting in a release of cash during times of immediate financial crises would be termed as best payday loan. It is only after the purpose for which the loan was taken gets satisfied that we start thinking critically of the loan. It will be wrong to term this tendency as selfishness. Payday loans are actually made dearer by loan providers. Many borrowers actually decide to take loans at any terms stated by the lenders because of the urgency involved in the situation. Lenders will not miss to profit of this opportunity. Thus, we find best payday loans costing dearly to its borrowers. High rates of interest and large fees are often appended to the payday loan, thus increasing the cost of the payday loan.

However, this was not what you had expected of the best payday loan. High interest rates were expected, but not of the extent that adorns your payday loan now. Neither had you expected that the lender would charge as high a fees. It is when the payday loan comes over for repayment that the expensiveness of the loan comes into view.

Though it may be too late to think of this now, this serves as a lesson for the next time that you plan to take a payday loan again. Proper planning ensures that the payday loan can be conveniently termed as a best payday loan.

Firstly, borrowers need to understand that payday loans differ from the other regular loans in terms of the purpose to which they are employed. The needs to which the payday loan is employed are characterized with urgency. These are generally routine monthly expenses, requiring only a small amount towards their disbursal. Thus, regular loans, where large amounts are exchanged, may not be appropriate. Moreover, regular loans that take several weeks to be approved and sanctioned may not be appropriate for these expenses because of the urgency involved.

Individuals, who may have ended their monthly paycheque before the next paycheque becomes due, find themselves hapless in making any extra payments.Best payday loans provide access to funds at a very short notice. Through payday loans, borrowers can draw funds in the range of £80 to £400. Depending on the needs of the borrowers and the lending policy adhered to by the lender, the borrowable amount may further go upwards. These funds will be used by borrowers to expend with ease.

Payday loans are short-term loans. The amount has to be returned with the interest within a month; sometimes within weeks. Lenders may employ different methods to get back the money. The most popular of these is the post-dated cheque system. The cheque is dated for presentation on the desired date. On the specific date, the amount is automatically cut from the borrowers account. For this purpose, some loan providers would require the borrower to have a checking account.

The post-dated cheque may also serve as collateral. In this sense, Best payday loans may also be regarded as secured loans. Borrowers, who desire to have best payday loans without the clause of collateral, will have to further search the UK financial market. The concept of unsecured payday loans is fast catching up with lenders in the UK, and it may not be much difficult to have best payday loans without collateral.

There are certain essentials that the borrower needs to have in order to become eligible for best payday loans. The borrower needs to be employed with a regular income that is transferred directly into his bank account. The borrower must have a chequebook and a checking account as mentioned before.

An important advantage of best payday loans is that credit history will not be checked. Borrowers with bad credit history will specially find the clause beneficial. Many loan providers may not even require borrowers to present their social security number.

Online application and online processing suit best payday loans. Best payday loans need to be approved fast in order to meet the immediate needs. Online applications transfer personal and loan details quickly to the loan providers. Thus, online application contributes towards a faster approval of best payday loans.

Though best payday loans present a convenient method of drawing cash during emergencies, they must not be misused. Expert advice ensures that borrowers have enough knowledge to make a proper use of payday loans.

Save on Travel Now: Discover How Much Money You Can Save on Travel Now Using This

Who else wants to save on travel today? I realize that may sound like a silly question and the fact is, economic times are rough right now. Most people (including myself…) are looking to save big money on their travel prices. If you want to save a lot of money on your travel expenses, the solution to doing just that is actually a lot easier than you think. If you want to go to a nice luxurious hotel, resort, or cruise, the reality is you really can and at affordable prices that everyone can afford…let me explain…

The answer to saving on your travel has nothing to do with travel sites that have been known to save you up to 30%. I am talking about are travel memberships wherein you pay a one-time fee and gain immediate lifetime access. You can literally begin saving up to 80% off your travel needs for the rest of your life. No restrictions of when you travel, either! I am speaking highly of something known as a travel discount club that many are now discovering for the first time.

If you have never heard of a travel membership, basically what this mean to you is this…..it eliminates the high prices when it comes to travel prices. Have you ever gone to a hotel thinking that you paid way too much? Me too! These overpriced prices have gone on for far too long in my opinion. So in essence what these memberships do for you, is save you a log of money.

When you are a paid member, you then have access to over thousands of highly sought after travel locations from around the world. This will save you up to 80% off of your travel expenses around the world. You do not have to worry about when you travel because you get to decide that.

You can literally go anywhere and save a lot of money. You will save limitless amounts of money if you are member. If you are a member, you will have the luxury of being able to stay at some of the very most luxurious relaxing condos. You can also take advantage of scenic cruises, villas and cottages and best of all, when you want!

Savings are available at many of the finest of resorts, too. You can stay at 4 and 5-star hotels and be treated like a king or queen! For many, this is a dream come true because of the fact that you will have the ability to stay at some of the very best resorts from all over the world. This is not a timeshare, mind you.

These memberships do not require you to pay any additional fees, at least the ones that I have checked out. No maintenance fees or annual fees is a huge plus to many, who have been burned by timeshares. That is something that no timeshare can even come close to when comparing the two. If you compare the amount of money that you would have to pay on a retail vacation, a membership blows the retail price right out of the water. You will easily save over 50% or more.

Do your own research and see for yourself. Having a membership to for access to thousands of luxury hotel locations at rock-bottom wholesale prices is what makes this an easy decision for many. When you compare the savings to the retail price that you would have to pay, it just makes good sense..

Take for example the fact that you can get:

a 2-bedroom condo at multiple worldwide locations for less than $200 for a seven-day vacation stay. The only question is why would would you want to spend several hundred more than what you need to? The retail price for this vacation retailed for $998 on a site that offered the exact same amenities.

When I first learned of these savings, I jumped on the opportunity because I hate having to spend more money than I really have to. When you join, you will gain immediate private access and be a part of the vacation club that allows you to profit from these vacation deals. When I first took a look at it, I could not believe the savings. In fact, I thought there had to be a catch….I was pleasantly surprised when I realized there was no catch on having access to unbelievable discounts on these luxurious vacations. It was a dream come true for me.

Another big advantage is that you will also have access to travel advisors. These are advisors who will assist you with various travel needs on other travel related expenses. When you are getting ready to go on a trip, the less that you have to worry about is priceless.

These memberships are the answer to saving money when it comes to traveling throughout the entire United States, but all across the globe. While memberships are not free, you could easily make your money back on one vacation alone. So basically, you get your money back after your first vacation. Keep in mind that there are pretty high priced memberships compared to other clubs.

If you want to save some serious cash, consider a membership because it will certainly save you more than just a few bucks when you consider the fact that you can save several hundreds of dollars on your first trip. I cannot say enough about these memberships. They really are the way to travel when it comes to saving money at worldwide luxurious hotels, resorts and cruises.

No matter if you are casual traveler or a business traveler, saving up to 80% on travel related expenses is the perfect solution for literally anyone who travels I do not know about you but most everyone I talk to travels at least once in a while. So even if you just travel once in a while, you still save a lot of money.

If you want to save money on your travel, having a membership that will save you several hundreds of dollars on resorts, cruises, fine hotels and many other vacation expenses, is the best deal. The reason is that having one of these memberships pays you back every time you access your membership privileges. It allow you to take immediate advantage of for the unlimited savings.

Will One Be Successful With a Travel MLM Opportunity in This Economy?

Question: What would you do if you had more time and money?

Chances are, travel is one of those things you would love to do.

Given the current economy, people want to make money and to save money. Some will cut back on their most pressing needs, and others will go totally frugal.

We cannot argue, travel is something we would all love to do.

Given the size of the industry, people will no doubt still travel.

However, your choice of travel MLM business opportunity, as well as your own individual traits and characteristics will decide whether you find success or not.

Given the various travel MLM organizations around, such as Global Resorts Network, Coastal Vacations, Your Travel Biz, and so many others, you have so much choice in what company you choose to join.

The price point of whatever travel product or service you choose to advertise will however influence how well you may eventually do.

People will definitely be hunting for a bargain as they look to save on vacations and taxes for themselves and their loved ones.

So the low-end travel products and services will bring in the masses. These have universal appeal, and of course have to be better priced MLM travel products and services than what consumers are already buying, without sacrificing quality.

The mid-point and high-end opportunities and products may be viable, though perhaps a little more difficult.

For business builders, given the large size of the industry, there are definitely many opportunities that can be exploited, again with price being a major determinant.

World over, the baby-boom age band is nearing retirement. It’s been proven that for the most part, people in their later years spend more money in certain industries, particularly, healthcare and leisure travel.

A travel home business opportunity, if well positioned, can be a perfect offering for this generation. Not to say this is the only target market of course, as you also have budget travelers, adventure travelers, people seeking timeshare alternatives, corporate travelers, and many others.

Travel is something everybody does. They either book with you or Expedia, Travelocity, of one of the other travel providers.

In some cases, a travel business opportunity can provide more competitive fares than traditional travel companies and search engines, because of their bulk-buying concept.

A travel business opportunity will offer you multiple ways to earn money upfront, while you build a residual income. You can market cruises, vacations, holidays to dream destinations at dream prices, as well as conventional travel.

Some of these opportunities offer an option to become a travel agent or consultant, and market leisure travel at very competitive rates for the most part.

Success with travel will depend on your offering something that offers the customers usefulness, or helps them create or save money without too much hassle or difficulty.

Travel is a broad and very competitive industry, but targeting a small niche within this industry, gives you focus and can lead to greater success that trying to take the whole market.

Travel network marketing companies carve out niches within the broader travel industry. In marketing travel, it may well be wise to choose a company that works within a niche that best suits you, and that shows signs of growth in the years ahead.

Travel is not a difficult concept to explain. Compare this to other industries, where you have to explain technicalities and complexities involved with the products (science and formulas behind them).

The easier the product is to talk about, the easier it is to duplicate.

While there will undoubtedly be so many ways to market your travel MLM business opportunity, it will all depend on the effort you put in, as well as what the best market for you is.

Why Your Business Needs Corporate Travel Management

Are you a manager or business owner constantly finding yourself sending employees and sales people to conventions, networking events, and seminars all around the country? You are probably finding the process a bit stressful and have already tried different techniques to make things easier. If you have not made much progress in streamlining your corporate travel, it’s understandable. After all, organizing corporate travel can be a challenging task regardless of the size of your corporation. That’s why you should contract a corporate travel management firm. An established firm has the experience and expertise that will make your business travel organization a walk in the park. You would be surprised at how much time and money you can save on your corporate travel operations by allowing a professional to tweak, track, and trim a few things here and there.

If you have been organizing your corporate travel in house, it’s time to allocate your time more effectively and outsource your travel management to a firm. Did you know that you could be saving money on corporate travel expenses in more ways than one? Whether your employees are attending seminars in the US or traveling abroad to expand international markets, you will be able to benefit from the services of a corporate travel manager. From discounts on airline travel and hotels to important expense accounting tricks, a travel management firm has that special sauce that helps your company save.

One of the most attractive advantages to working with a corporate travel management firm is the savings on airfare. If you decide to partner with a large firm who purchases airline tickets in bulk you will easily pay for the management fees using the savings you realize on airfares alone. By working with a travel management service you increase your buying power by orders of magnitude and keep more cash in your expense account. Another way business travel firms can save money for your firm is by connecting your employees ahead of time with several discounted hotels so you don’t just save money on hotel costs, but your employees save time researching hotels. And, as we all know, time is money.

Another excellent benefit of travel management that should not be understated is the tax and corporate accounting advice that is included. A good travel management company will have a unique way of recording and combining travel expenses that allows you to deduct more taxable expenses from your corporate income taxes. If you have not considered, recorded and tracked every single transaction that is accounted for during a corporate voyage (which includes food, drinks, an entertainment expenses) then your company is paying too much in taxes. The key is to write off everything related to every business travel. This is a smart and perfectly legal method that can save your company even more money. You might be thinking about the absolute nightmare of tracking every employee travel expense, but don’t worry, your travel manager will have that figured out too.

Corporate travel management firms these days are incredibly savvy when it comes to technology. Many firms offer a free app that allows each employee to track every single expense as they go about their day on any given trip. The data is uploaded to the app server in real time allowing you to track expenses, compare to other employees and generally keep an eye on which expenses are being billed to the corporate account and why. If you prefer not to see or deal with this information, you can simply request a status report at the end of each month or after each trip and the firm will deliver a summary of all expenses to your smartphone or laptop.

Corporate travel management is crucial for any corporation whether big or small. Keeping track of expenses, obtaining cheap airfares and hotel stays as well as keeping the expense accounting up to par is not a luxury, it is critical for staying competitive and running an efficient business. Most travel management firms will charge a reasonable fee that will pay for itself with a portion of the savings realized. Besides, what is the dollar value that you place on your own time and that of your employees? Any wise business owner or corporate manager knows that time is money.

Learning English Online Can Be Fun But Yet Effective

In today’s competitive world it is a virtual requirement to be able to speak fluent English to get the best jobs in any business. While it is a difficult process to learn any new language, English is considered by many to be very difficult because there are so many exceptions to the rules. Fortunately there are proven ways to successfully learn to read, write and speak the English language fluently. Perhaps the best way is learning English online. The online format has many advantages that traditional self-study and even classroom learning simply cannot offer. Online learning has the ability to combine every different proven learning strategy together in one comprehensive class.

Learning English online is far easier than any other method of study because of the wide range of materials and the flexibility of being able to log on and study at any time of the day or night. There are no rigid class schedules which you have to attend every week so there is little risk of falling behind on your studies. Online classes are also easy to adjust based on your work and personal life which is a big advantage for many busy individuals. Many people’s schedules change week by week with kid’s events, work changes and other unavoidable reasons. Due to these changes it is impossible for many people to attend class at the same time each and every week.

One huge area where learning English online excels is the audio and video media that is available to the students. In many normal English classes there is a very limited number of options to choose from when looking to listen to English spoken aloud or watch a video in English. Online there are literally millions of different options available. When you want to learn a specific part of the English language it is not difficult to find examples of it with a quick search or by being guided along with an online course instructor. Many exceptional online English courses offer a library of different audio, video and written items which can be viewed and studied at any time. These items are very beneficial to help learn how native English speakers sound and also for learning the language in general.

Learning English online is not only extremely convenient, it is also very effective. It is common knowledge that in order to quickly learn English you need to work at it every single day, especially for the first few months. Online instructions allow you to do just that by providing vast amounts of information which is available at any time. There is no need to wait around for an instructor to show up at a class room in order to get the next assignment or to ask a question. You can access all the information you need at any time and if you ever have a question for the instructor he is just an email away.

While it’s true that when learning English online an instructor is typically available to reply to any questions right away, there is yet another advantage. The other students who are studying to learn the language are also often available to ask for assistance. This creates a community of learning which is far superior than just relying on one individual instructor. Allowing students to interact online lets one student who is struggling in one particular area get help from another who happens to excel. Each student can help others with their strength and gain valuable insight on areas in which they are weak. Everyone benefits from this collaborative learning strategy and it takes advantage of the fact that people retain information when they are also teaching it.

It is a well known fact that when people hear, read, speak and teach something they are very likely to retain that information for a long time. Using this strategy, learning English online allows you to perform each of these items every day to help ensure you learn English as effectively, and quickly as possible. In addition to helping students learn faster and retain the information better, this method of learning also keeps it far more entertaining than more traditional methods. Allowing students to participate in every aspect of the class provides additional variety so they do not get bored. Learning by constantly reading or hearing someone talk about the same concepts will quickly get boring but when students are allowed to choose what type of learning they desire on a given day the learning will stay fresh and exciting!

Students will often find themselves creating small groups when they are learning English online because they often interact with the same people on a regular basis. These small groups will let each student contribute what they know and understand best to the others while receiving instructions from others in areas in which they may struggle. The sharing of information also provides opportunities for students to network with each other and potentially learn about additional opportunities in different areas of their lives. These small groups may meet only virtually through online meeting services or even just by replying to email chains to each other. It is all informally set up by the students to compliment the education they find while studying to learn English online as individuals.

As with anything new in life, learning English online will come with it’s own set of challenges. Learning a new language is a very difficult yet extremely rewarding experience for anyone willing to take on the challenge. The rewards come in many ways from meeting new friends to increasing your employment opportunities for your future. Learning English is one of the best things you can do to help open new doors for your career since English is the most commonly spoken language in the business world today. It is important to remember that you need to learn English today in preparation for potential career advancement in the future as when a job opens up, you won’t even be considered if you don’t already have the language skills firmly in place.

How Would You Like to Compete With a Royal Wedding?

Spring brides all over Britain have been thrown for a loop by the announcement of the royal wedding of Prince William and Kate Middleton. Once the April 29, 2011 date was set, ordinary women who had already been planning their weddings for the last weekend of April suddenly realized that their wedding would definitely be playing second fiddle to the grand event. What’s an ordinary bride to do when she comes to find out that a royal wedding will be upstaging her big day?

While there is something kind of neat about sharing a wedding anniversary with a royal couple, there are also a lot of headaches associated with it. Brides who had previously selected the April 2011 wedding date which was chosen by Prince William and Kate Middleton are facing an uphill battle to keep their wedding in the forefront of anyone’s mind for that special date. After all, the royal wedding will be a national holiday in England – how many of other women can say that about their wedding dates? The reality is that many of the wedding guests may be wishing that they were watching the royal wedding, when they are attending the one to which they were invited. For that matter, the bride herself may be interested in seeing the royal wedding on television!

So what is an ordinary bride to do when she realizes that her wedding will be in competition with the wedding of the year? One option is to change the wedding date. That is not as crazy as it sounds, especially for brides who were planning to get married anywhere remotely near Westminster Abbey or on any of the streets in the vicinity. Remember the legions of fans who lined the route which Lady Diana Spencer’s carriage traveled to take her to her wedding to Prince Charles? Surely that kind of scene will be repeated when Kate Middleton makes her approach to her wedding site in her custom bridal gown and royal jewelry, with all of the accompanying security and traffic snarls which you would expect. The ordinary bride who is getting married on April 29, 2011 may well find that just getting to her own wedding is a major struggle.

Of course, not every bride will be able to switch her wedding date, especially if deposits have already been made on the venue and vendors, so there will be plenty of women who share the royal wedding date. In that case, there are essentially two options: to either ignore the fact that there is another, more famous, wedding taking place at the same time, or to really embrace the royal wedding and to celebrate Kate and Prince William’s marriage along with your own. Show a film of Kate and Prince William’s vows at your wedding reception. Name the reception tables after famous places in the royal couple’s life (St. Andrews, Kenya, Westminster Abbey, etc.). Rather than trying to ignore the elephant in the room, embrace it.

Brides who wish to keep the focus on their own weddings despite the shared date with the royal wedding would do well to plan an event in a very different style. Competing with any royal wedding head to head in terms of style is an impossibility for most regular folks, so don’t even try! No matter how fabulous your wedding gown and custom bridal jewelry, they will not be instantly copied around the globe. No matter how happy the bride and groom are, their radiant faces will not be put on commemorate plates or postage stamps. So instead of attempting to put together a celebration with a grand style, go a different direction. Host an ultra-modern cocktail wedding in an art gallery or throw a picnic reception on a lawn out in the country. And of course, take heart that despite all the excitement of the royal wedding taking place on the same day as your own wedding, your family and friends will still be just as happy for you.

Love Story Movie – Fashion Style

This must surely be one of my most favorite, movie fashion inspirations. It certainly had tons of style in every shot of Ali MacGraw, without being unduly influenced by fashion. When the weather is cold outside and with a roaring fire indoors, I always think of this movie. The 1970 classic ‘Love Story’ movie, inspires the kind of perfect love one can only dream about. With the radiance of American Ivy League as a backdrop, the classic white, stone-washed buildings and bright sun against knee-deep snows, it all seems to reflect Ali’s beauty.

Her enviable wardrobe provided inspiration for fashion designers in future years. Her clothing evokes the classic ‘preppy’ style and today is accessible to everyone. Playing a poor scholarship student, Jenny Cavaleri, Ali became a style icon that made that American style, famous and trendy. Classic designers like Michael Kors and Calvin Klein certainly took lots of inspiration from the movie for their subsequent collections.

Ali constantly wore amazing coats with classic masculine lines, like the fantastic camel colored, cashmere coat, that wrapped around her sporty figure so well. There was also the deep blue, pea coat with the shiny buttons, teamed with lovely turtlenecks peeping from beneath. The masterful color arrangements of her outfits contributed a lot to the success of this unforgettable style. The beige with black and red check skirt, worn as she moved in and out of the school building, flowed alongside her fast wit and humorous banter with Ryan O’Neal.

I think the constant appearance of short skirts was intentional, since the movie was made in the 1970s, therefore just at the end of the 60s ‘mini mania’. It certainly fitted her independent free spirit and brilliant, sparkling personality. For her wedding, she wore the same check mini skirt, intimating so much personal casual chic. It tells me that clothes don’t have to be serious, but love is. Her fantastic accessory collection is also a reminder for us that it is so important not to forget matching hats, or even what a whimsical fur hat will do for an outfit.

I can see them both in his convertible, top down, driving towards her new in-laws’ vast estate. She is wearing her classic camel coat and black tights, ready to grace the old dark, wood-panelled rooms of the huge mansion. As she reveals her beautiful, lipstick-red silk dress, it makes me want to go out and get a dress just like it and grow my hair to have a side parting. Although maybe we cannot star in a film, at least we can all style ourselves classic and pretty.

'Down With Love' Movie Fashion Style

Whenever I need an inspiration for color in fashion, I always revisit my beloved movie ‘Down with Love’. This frivolously delicious and hilarious movie, starring Rennee Zellweger and Ewan McGregor, has itself become a bit of a vintage movie. It is a spoof on the Doris Day and Rock Hudson comedies of the 60s.

The bubbly blonde and the dark, handsome guy, with the ‘girl trying to work hard to get somewhere’ kind of story line. It certainly makes a very deserving ‘chick flick’, perfect for a rainy Sunday afternoon. However, the main attractions for me are the costumes. Make no mistake, this is certainly forward thinking in terms of the whole vintage thing. I guess the craze about ‘Mad Men’ really started with this movie.

The costumes were designed by Daniel Orlandi. I am extremely impressed with the fact that it had no real vintage clothing at all. All of the costumes were complete re-designs, fitted and turned into the funny colorful feast of a movie. The whole movie is a nonstop extravaganza of fashion display, overloaded with rainbow colors, beautiful fabrics, and matching outfits. I adore the ensemble of a pink and white wool jacket, over a super-fitted wool dress, matching the color of the jacket and topped with a pair of white gloves for style.

Daniel Orlandi must have read all the magazines from the years 62-67 to draw his inspirations for the movie. “We didn’t want to use vintage clothes on Renee, or any of the other principals, because we didn’t want it to look shabby,” says Orlandi, who instead used vintage fabric for many of his designs. “We wanted the clothes to seem fun and surprising, not campy.”

It definitely does not look ‘thrift shop’, in fact the cut and fit for both actors are simply amazing. Apparently, he intentionally designed the garments with lots of vibrant colors, even though they were not traditional colors for a blonde. I think the bright colors agreed with Renee very well, reflecting on her character and the comedy plot. The riot of colors, lavender, lime, fuchsia, snow-white, magenta and ice blue are certainly a feast for the eyes.

Don’t be afraid to copy the fashion of this movie though. All the expertly matched outfits, certainly put all of us who wear a GAP tee shirt and jeans to shame. We could always lighten ourselves up with a brightly colored scarf, a fitted dress with neat tucking details, or a pair of snazzy pumps. We should never be afraid of color, after all we can still wear the classic black coat. Get out there and wear those color and treat your friends to a colorful feast.

What Is Your Fashion Statement For This Season?

Nowadays, it is quite hard to keep up with the latest in fashion. Almost every week, new trends are coming up. In Hollywood, celebrities caught everyone’s attention with their styles. Most of the glamorous movie stars compete not only with their acting prowess but with their choice of fashion styles as well. Women’s fashion constantly changes. Those who are particular in how they look will absolutely invest much just to keep themselves abreast with what’s in and what’s hot. Well, this is really not bad at all if you have all the resources you need to avail the latest items in fashion.

However, women can still make her own fashion statement for a little amount of effort and resources. In making fashion a little bit more practical but updated, women’s accessories are a good option to make. There are many available women accessories that will complement your fashion styles. Take for example the Cashmere pashmina which is very much ideal especially now that it is winter time. As early as November, we can already feel the cool breeze of December. For me, cashmere pashmina is the right choice. There are lots of colors and designs to choose from for cashmere pashmina. If you just know how to use it properly, it is already a very good accessory that is very much useful for all occasions. Cashmere pashmina is a versatile accessory that allows you to create your own style with it.

Women don’t really have to be so vain when it comes to fashion. No matters how expensive your clothes and accessories might be but you look terribly awful upon wearing it, you better not wear it at all. Women can actually create her own signature style, something that would define her fashion statement. Self-confidence is one factor that will not caused her to look good of the fashion of her choice. You don’t have to be as glamorous as Paris Hilton or as trendy as any teenage sensation. Real fashion for me is not all about the style; it is all about the attitude. If you can carry it, then you are definitely in!

How To Select The Perfect Entertainment Wall Unit For Your Home

One should never rush into the purchase of a large piece of furniture. It’s important to assess the room, think about all the possibilities and potential arrangements, and really get a feel for the space before making any large renovations.

The entertainment wall unit is the perfect instance of such a purchase. This can be an absolutely expansive piece of furniture, dominating an entire wall if you allow it or it can take up an entire corner of your room. On the other hand, you may not want such an enormous piece of furniture to completely change and dominate the look of your room so you may instead opt for a smaller simpler console design. TV wall units are versatile pieces of furniture, coming in all varieties of styles, shapes, and colors. These options should all be taken into careful consideration before going ahead and making any purchase.

Ignoring for now the varieties of styles, materials, or size, let’s examine the most integral part of your purchase: the space for your television. Entertainment wall furniture is designed to house your home theater, with the television as the crown jewel. You want this piece of furniture to compliment your television perfectly. It shouldn’t overwhelm the TV or make it look too small, but rather highlight all of its assets. Take careful measurements of your television before looking at any of these units to make sure you’re going to purchase a unit that will be the perfect fit for your TV as well as the wall space and size of your room.

Now, with that piece of advice out of the way, it’s important for you to select the entertainment center that will really make your home pop. Your existing furniture may already demand that you choose a particular style or manufacturer. For example, a contemporary unit might look out of place in a traditional home and vice-versa. At the same time, purchasing such a large and dramatic piece of furniture may be the perfect time to alter your existing style and give your home a new and up-to-date look. The choice is all yours.

When selecting an entertainment center, you’ll notice that they come in a variety of materials and color combinations. You can buy any design you’d like, all the way from incredibly futuristic designs made entirely of glass and metal to a solid wood piece that looks like it’s from another century. The variety of centers on the market allows you to make any choice that you desire.

One last bit of criteria you should definitely take into account is the size of your room. If you’re furnishing a small room, you should probably purchase a smaller entertainment wall unit so that it doesn’t monopolize your room. These units come in all different sizes, so it’s easy to find the perfect size for any space. If you have a huge room, you may want to think about buying a unit that extends all the way to the ceiling just to break up your room and provide a dramatic and eye-catching focal point.

It’s also important to pick your storage. Cabinets and shelves, closed or open; these are all additional considerations you have to think about when deciding how to store your equipment and accessories. Some units have a combination of cabinets and shelves and are now being sold as sets, which may include a TV nook, two side units and an upper shelf called a bridge. This provides an extra degree of flexibility for homeowners who would like their entertainment unit to double as a bookcase so that they can display books, collectibles and other personal treasures.

When selecting a TV wall unit keep in mind that little details can make a big difference.. Before purchasing, carefully consider everything you’re looking for and start out your search with a well thought out idea and a solid plan. From there, locating the perfect entertainment wall unit should be a breeze.